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欧洲’s 伽利略 GNSS Now Replies To Distress Messages Around The Globe

在提供全球导航服务的同时,欧洲’s 伽利略 satellite constellation is contributing to saving more than 2000 lives annually by relaying SOS messages to first responders. And from now on the satellites will reply to these messages, assuring people in danger that help is on the way.

此ESA设计‘return link’ system, unique to 伽利略, was declared operational this week, during the 12th 欧洲an 空间 Policy Conference in Belgium. The delivery time for the 返回链接 acknowledgement messages from initial emergency beacon activation is expected to be a couple of minutes in the majority of cases, up to 30 minutes maximum, depending primarily on the time it takes to detect and locate the alert.

“现在,遇到麻烦的任何人都会通过其激活的信标上的指示得到可靠的确认,通知他们已经将其警报和位置通知了搜救服务机构,” explains ESA’s 伽利略 principal search and rescue engineer Igor Stojkovic. “对于处境艰难的人来说,这种知识可能会产生很大的变化。”

All but the first two out of 26 伽利略 satellites carry a Cospas-Sarsat search and rescue package. At only 8 kg in mass, these life-saving payloads consume just 3% of onboard power, with their receive-transmit repeater housed next to the main navigation antenna.

Cospas-Sarsat于1979年由加拿大,法国,俄罗斯和美国成立,最初是从低轨道卫星上的有效载荷开始的,该卫星的快速轨道运动使多普勒测距信号能够精确定位。缺点是这些苍蝇离地球太近,以至于它们的视野相对较小。

对地静止卫星继续托管Cospas-Sarsat的有效载荷。这些人可以看到更多的星球,但是因为它们相对于地球静止不动’在表面上,无法进行多普勒测距。

Medium-orbiting satellites such as 伽利略 –在23222公里的高度运行–提供两全其美的解决方案,通过多颗卫星结合到达时间和多普勒测距技术提供宽广的地面视野,以定位SOS信号。这样可以将最大信号检测时间从四小时缩短到不到五分钟,减少到一到两公里(在10分钟内的正式规定为5公里之内)。

伽利略’欧洲的搜救服务’s contribution to Cospas-Sarsat, operated by the 欧洲an Global Navigation 卫星 System Agency, GSA, and designed and developed at ESA. As the overall 伽利略 system architect and design authority, ESA has been responsible for the interface between the core 伽利略 infrastructure to the Return Link Service Provider facility, procured by the 欧洲an Commission and operated by French space agency CNES.

Cospas-Sarsat卫星中继器由位于欧洲角落的三个地面站(称为中地轨道本地用户终端(MEOLUT))补充,该基地设在挪威’斯匹次卑尔根群岛,塞浦路斯和西班牙’s加那利群岛,由法国图卢兹的控制中心负责协调。该三重奏很快将成为四重奏,法国的第四站’位于印度洋的拉留尼汪岛正在开发中。

卫星将遇险消息中继到这些MEOLUT,然后将它们中继到本地搜索和救援机构。

服务’s 返回链接 message capability was developed as an inherent part of the 伽利略 system. The messages are relayed to the individual beacons that sent the original distress call by being embedded within 伽利略 signals broadcast from satellites in their view.

“The switching on of the 返回链接 service was enabled by a thorough test campaign carried out by ESA, with the support of the GSA and CNES,” adds Igor. “我们需要确保即使一次回复多个遇险呼叫,服务也仍然可靠。”

A key milestone was a public demonstration of the 返回链接 service, performed at the Cospas-Sarsat Joint Committee Meeting in Doha in Qatar last summer.

“The 返回链接 is a joint service of Cospas-Sarsat and 伽利略 and therefore agreement by Cospas-Sarsat was crucial,” adds Igor.

“去年11月,欧洲委员会在Cospas-Sarsat理事会领导下进行了长时间讨论,并得到了ESA和CNES提供的大量模拟和测试结果的支持,从而实现了这一认可。”

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